We are presenting some key data on Polish energy sector in 2018, significant from the perspective of changes taking place in Poland.
- The share of imports in covering domestic energy needs is increasing. Record imports of electricity, coal and gas were noted.
- Energy mix diversification is progressing towards greater utilization of gas units.
- In 2018, the share of RES in Polish energy mix did not grow. New investments are missing.
- In 2017, greenhouse gas emissions in Poland increased by 4% compared to 2016.
- Emissions only in the power and heating sectors remained unchanged in the last year.
- The import balance of hard coal has tripled and covers about a quarter of domestic demand.
- The share of gas in the energy mix is growing, last year it amounted to 7.2%, compared to 5.6% in 2017.
- The share of installed capacity in lignite and hard coal decreased from 72% in 2017 to 70% at the end of 2018.
- The share of installed capacity of gas units increased by 1 p.p.
Change in installed capacity in 2018 as compared to 2017
- The increase in installed capacity in gas units is a result of the completion of the investment in the industrial CHP plant in Płock.
- The installed capacity of photovoltaic panels increased by more than 80% year-to-year
Changes in installed capacity
- In the last decade, new capacities consisted of mainly RES and gas-fired industrial units.
Changes in installed RES capacity
- The installed PV capacity tripled to 560 MW in 2016-18.
- Other renewable sources development is halted since 2016.
Electricity production in 2018
- Coal is the most important fuel in electricity production - its share was 78.1% compared to 78.4% in 2017.
- The importance of gas is growing. Its share in the energy mix was 7.2% compared to 5.6% in 2017.
- The share of RES in electricity production decreased to 12.7% from 14.1% in 2017.
Change in electricity production in 2018 as compared to 2017
- The decrease in lignite production results mainly from the shutdown of the Adamów power plant.
- The decrease in production from onshore wind power plants is related to unfavourable legal regulations and less wind.
- The production of electricity from coal and gas increased after the completion of the Kozienice power plant and the CHP plant in Płock.
Changes in electricity production
- In the last decade, the share of natural gas in the energy mix has increased significantly.
- The changes in other sources were minor.
Changes in electricity production from renewable energy sources
- In 2018, the lowest production and the lowest share of RES in the mix after 2014 were noted.
Balance of domestic electricity production and consumption
- In 2018, electricity production remained at the 2017 level.
- The growing demand for electricity was covered by imports. The net import volume increased two-and-half-fold.
Change in electricity demand
- In 2009-18 the demand for electricity in Poland increased on average by 1.6%, and last year by 1.8%.
- GDP is growing faster than electricity demand.
Change in peak power demand
- The annual maximum peak power demand in the Polish system is growing - in 2018 it reached a new record level of 26.45 GW.
- The problem of rapidly growing peak power demand in summer is worsening.
Total national greenhouse gas emissions
- In 2017, total greenhouse gas emissions increased by 16 million tonnes or about 4% compared to the previous year.
- The upward trend has been continuing since 2014.
Power and heating sector greenhouse gas emissions
- Emissions from the power sector increased in 2017 by 1% compared to 2016.
- Emissions from the heating sector remain constant.
Power sector gas and dust emissions
- In 2016, over 40% reduction in SOx emissions was observed. Emission reductions result from the implementation of the Industrial Emissions Directive.
- In 2016, the trend of slow NOx and dust emission reduction continued
Comparison of spot electricity prices on neighbouring markets
- In 2018, the whole region experienced a significant increase in electricity prices.
- It is evident that prices on neighbouring markets in the European Union are progressively levelling out, as a result of the functioning of the internal electricity market.
Power sector fuels
Domestic production of hard coal
- In 2018, hard coal production decreased by 2 million tonnes compared to 2017.
Trade balance of steam hard coal
- Steam coal imports are a record high, with over 78% of the volume coming from Russia. Other main import directions are Colombia, the USA and Kazakhstan.
- Exports from Poland are the lowest in 15 years.
Domestic consumption of steam hard coal in 2017
- Almost half of the steam coal, 30.7 million tonnes, was used to generate electricity.
- Over 40% of the volume, i.e. 25 million tonnes, was used for heating purposes.
Domestic natural gas consumption
- In 2017, the consumption of high-methane natural gas increased to 16.4 billion m3 , i.e. by over 25% in 9 years.
- In the same period, domestic production decreased by 18% and amounted to 1.7 billion m3.
- Nitrified natural gas comes entirely from domestic production. Its use is at a constant level of approx. 3.8 billion m3 annually.
Supply of natural gas
- Imports from the East account for more than 50% of gas supplies.
- In 2017, imports from other directions increased, mainly due to contracts for the purchase of liquefied gas.
Title of analysis: "Energy transition in Poland. Edition 2019"
Date of publication: April 2019
Authors: Rafał Macuk, Joanna Maćkowiak Pandera, Andrzej Rubczyński, Aleksandra Gawlikowska-Fyk, Forum Energii